Speed and Strength through Structure
By Tim Mahoney
All golfers from Rory Milroy to Lydia Ko are in constant
attempts to generate more speed and strength throughout their golfing
motion. Golfers we see throughout our
golf schools are attempting more speed and strength as well. The only way to generate more speed and gain
speed is to have stability and structure throughout the entire motion of the
golf swing. The old adage, “would you
rather shoot a cannon from a canoe or a stable surface.” More speed and strength through a stable
surface. Golfers must develop stability
first before attempting speed and strength
Structure starts at address with a balanced posture and
set-up. Bending from your hips with a
neural spine. Weight on the balls of
your feet. Arms hanging directly from
your shoulders with your feet shoulder width apart. Body must be in a position where the muscles
are holding and supporting the movement.
Feet hold the ground as your hands hold the club. Bending from your hips with a small amount of
knee bend. Body must be tall and
balanced. This position will provide
structure throughout your golf swing.
As the arms swing, body turns and wristcock golfers must
maintain the structure established at address.
The feet continue to hold the ground.
Maintain the bend in your hips and the neutral spine. Body turns freely as you maintain the
structure stability and positions. Maintain
angles and positions.
As the arms swing, body unturns and wrist uncock to impact
the structure and stability established at address, top must be
maintained. Body turns around a fixed
point. The fixed point established at
address and maintained throughout the motion. Dynamic motion through a static
As the body unwinds, arms release, wrist uncock and the club
released, structure is maintained throughout the entire motion. Bend maintained, angles and lines kept
through structure. Speed and strength
the effect of stability and structure.
Maintain structure for a strong and fast golf swing.
Fairway bunker shots are regarded as some of the more
difficult in the game. Adding distance,
a high lip and a difficult lie and the task is almost impossible. There are several myths when it comes to
fairway bunker shots, and I hope to dispel some of those this week. Golfers, must keep in mind, when facing a bad
lie (bad lie is defined as when there is question about the lie), the first
objective is to advance the ball to a good lie.
Second objective, never attempt a miracle shot after a poor one. Finally, never attempt a shot that you have
not practiced. Keeping these objectives
in mind, fairway bunker shots will become an easier task.
When faced with a fairway bunker shot, preparation is the
most important element. Keys for the
choice- take enough loft to clear the lip.
Golfers should never hear “ball-thump.”
As a reference 1 more club should be utilized. High lofted fairway woods are an excellent
club of choice, assuming limited loft is need.
the golf ball back in your stance. Your
impact objective is a steeper angle of approach, striking the ball first and
sand after. The rearward ball position
will assist in steepening the angle.
down on the club. Shorten the club about
an inch. The shortened club will reduce
the chance of striking the sand prior the ball.
your feet into the sand about an inch.
The lowering of your feet will reduce the amount of lower body motion
during the swing. Excessive amount of
lower body slide will result in an incorrect bottom of the swing.
your body weight towards the target. As
you lean your weight allow the grip end to move towards the target. The weight and the hand adjustment will move
your swing bottom towards the target, resulting in a steeper angle of approach.
The adjustments in your set-up will steeper the angle
resulting in ball/sand contact.
Checkpoints during the motion:
a balanced swing. Holding your finish
until the ball comes to a rest guarantees success. Inability to hold the finish is an indication
of an out of balance motion.
the upper body to wind against the lower body on the backswing. The lower body must resist and hold. The coil generated is a power source. If the lower body does not hold, the swing
bottom will occur behind the ball, resulting in sand and ball contact.
swing posture throughout the motion.
Turn the upper body on the backswing and clear the lower body on the
forward side. Golfers must maintain
their measurement and posture throughout the motion. A conscious attempt to lift the ball will
result in a shallow angle.
Golf is a unique game, due to the fact; they never face the
same shot twice. Consistency is the
result of developing a repeating swing motion. Pre swing adjustments are
utilized when faced with different lies.
Golfers should 1 swing with different set-ups. Perfect your swing, make a few simple address
adjustments and the fairway bunker shot will be a simple one.
Sand play is often regarded as the easiest shot in golf, due
to the fact, that the club never comes in contact with the ball during a
greenside bunker shot. As a result of
over 30 years in the golf instruction business, I have found that the greenside
bunker shot maybe the most difficult.
There are several myths when it comes to this shot: first of all, “you must hit 2” behind the
ball, actually with the skidding effect of the bounce the clubs enters the sand
approx. 3-4 inches behind the ball.
Attempting to strike 2 inches behind may result in club ball
contact. Second myth, due to the
clubface open at address one must aim to the left. The golf ball is positioned
forward in the stance (off of left heel)
and no club ball contact the golf ball travels in the direction of the swing
path not the clubface. Keeping this in
mind there is no need to aim left. Third
myth, you must swing more upright.
Ninety percent of all golfers slice the ball due to an upright swing;
swing more upright simply produces a weak glancing hit that will travel a short
distance to the right. And the final
myth, you must look and aim behind the ball.
All shots in golf you make every attempt to strike the ball first, now
we are told to strike the sand first. If
you make 2 adjustments in your set-up: ball positioned off of the left heel and
lower your body in the sand you will automatically strike the sand first. Look at the ball and attempt to hit it.
Consistent sand play is the effect of:
the clubface according to the lie. Good
lie open the face, bad lies close the face.
As you adjust the club you must use the entire club. You never grip down on a greenside bunker
the golf ball off the left heel. This
position will allow the club to enter the sand behind the ball.
your body in the sand by digging in.
This adjustment will allow the club to get beneath the ball.
and swing towards the target. The golf
ball travels along the swing path not the clubface alignment.
3 times the amount of swing. The amount
of sand ways 3 times the weight of the ball.
Keeping this in mind you must make enough swing.
Trust the club and your full swing for the green side bunker
shot. Keep in mind that consistency is
the effect of perfecting one swing shape and make pre-swing adjustments for
Utilize Ground Forces for increased clubhead Speed
During my 20 years working with Bob Toski in the Golf Digest
Schools, Bob would state daily during our sessions, “ The hands grip the club
and the feet grip the ground.” As Player
Development activity has improved with the utilization of Trackman, K Vest,
Gears and 2-D video one area of development is lagging: understanding the force
of the ground. As I instruct throughout
the world, one simple ingredient is being utilized in increased club head speed
for all golfers: using the ground throughout the dynamic motion of the swing.
Golf shoe technology has greatly improved and the feet, ankles and toes have
room to launch and grip the ground.
Golfers slight in weight and leverage have found ways to increase speed
simply by using the ground in the swing.
A simple thought, “ are we more powerful with a cannon from a canoe or
from a firm surface?”
Ground forces start at address with a firm ground and
posture. Arms hanging freely, weight on
the middle of the ankles, bending from hips and spine at a neutral
position. Stability at address allows
the body to load and unload throughout the swing. Feet and ankles must have the mobility to
load and unload.
As you wind up into the backswing, allow the upper body to
wind against the lower body and ground.
Spine is tilt away from the target as the body is turned against the
feet and ground. The gluts are lowered
and activated as you wind against the ground.
There should be a slight lowering of the head during the backswing as
you wind up.
Explode during the downswing into impact. All muscles must fire as the trailing leg is
extended and lengthens. This movement of
thrusting upward creates a swing path and angle of approach upward through
impact. Lead glut is turning behind as
the trailing leg is straightening.
Pushing off of the balls of the feet as the heels rise off the ground
through impact. Low to high concept as
the golfer explodes through impact.
Using th3 ground on the backswing and downswing. Ground forces throughout the golf swing.
The most misunderstood concept in golf is the use and
utilization of ground forces. Low to
high as the golfers loads and explodes.
Use the ground as the legendary golf instructor Bob Toski mentions, “
hands grip the club as the feet grip the ground.”
Controlling Trajectory in the Short Game
In executing short game shots, inside 50 yards (pitches and
chips), a player’s ability to control the ball’s flight trajectory can be just
as important as controlling the ball’s direction and overall distance. A golfer has options to create consistent
ball flight trajectory and as a result consistent shot patterns swing after
Option One – Ball Choice:
A golfer’s choice of golf ball will have an affect on a golf
ball’s flight characteristics. It is the
dimples on a golf ball that are responsible for its flight
characteristics. Their design (size,
shape and pattern) will help dictate the ball’s trajectory. The size and depth of the dimples affect
performance. Shallow dimples generate
more spin on a golf ball than deep dimples, which increases loft and causes the
ball to rise and stay in the air longer and roll less, which is advantageous
when playing to elevated greens. Deep
dimples generate less spin on a golf ball than shallow dimples, which decrease
loft and causes the ball to stay on a lower trajectory, with less air time and
greater roll, which is advantageous when playing to low elevated greens.
Option Two – Ball Position:
A correct ball position helps you contact the ball crisply and
achieve the proper trajectory on the shot.
Ball position affects the path and the angle of approach the club takes
into the ball which ensures a consistent loft angle of the club at impact. With the ball positioned too far forward,
your shoulders align left of the target, thus creating a swing path that is too
steep and out-to-in. If you locate the
ball too far back toward your right foot, your shoulders are closed, which
creates a swing path that is too shallow and in-to-out. You will be able to produce consistent ball
flight trajectories only if the ball is positioned correctly in your
stance. For chip shots, position the
ball about two inches back of center.
You want to strike the ball with a descending angle of approach creating
a low trajectory, running shot. For all
wedges and pitch swings from normal lies position the ball in the exact center
of your stance.
Option Three – Swing Technique:
To create a low trajectory chip or pitch shot, set your
hands slightly ahead of the ball. A
forward hand position will naturally de-loft the clubface, helping to start the
ball on a low trajectory. Also,
concentrate on making a rhythmic swing with a slightly slower tempo on the
forward swing. A slower tempo will
produce less spin, helping to keep the ball on a low trajectory. Stay level with your hips as you swing
through impact. Feel as though the
handle of the club leads the clubhead through the hitting area to prevent adding
loft to the clubface at impact. A low
trajectory shot means a low finish. The
lower you want to hit it, the lower you want to finish, not only with the hands
and arms, but with the clubhead as well.
While it is okay to play the ball back in you stance to produce a lower
trajectory, it is not advantageous to play the ball forward in your stance as a
means of getting a higher trajectory.
Playing the ball forward in you stance moves it ahead of the bottom of
your natural swing arc. To hit a higher
shot, the first choice should always be to take a more lofted club and make
your standard swing. The second choice
is to open the clubface, aim your swing line to the left of the target and keep
the ball exactly in the center of your stance.
Keeping the ball in the middle of your stance ensures crisp contact.
Option Four – Club Selection:
The easiest way to vary shot trajectory from a normal lie is
to choose a higher degree lofted club or choose a lower degree lofted
club. If you need a higher soft landing
shot, choose a lob (60 degrees), sand (56 degrees), gap (52 degrees), or a pitching
wedge (48 degrees). If you need a lower
running shot, choose a 9 iron (39 degrees), 8 iron (34 degrees), 7 iron (30
degrees), or 6 iron (26 degrees). It is
easier than creating a different swing or changing your mechanics. Clubs are designed with the clubface having
different lofts. It is loft that makes a
golf ball take flight on an ascending trajectory, not an upward direction of
swing. The club actually hits the ball in
a horizontal or slightly downward angle.
Choose the option that works best for your game. Your golf ball selection will be based on the
design of the golf course that you’ll be playing. Under normal lie conditions, you’ll want to
maintain a consistent ball position for crisp club to ball contact. Vary the length of your swing technique to
produce low or high trajectories. And
choose your club wisely. Practice with
different lofted clubs and observe the ball flight trajectory patterns. Take your observations to the golf course.